Тема 20. Страдательный залог - Другие языки

TO BE + V3 Indefinite Continuous Perfect to be + V3 to be being + V3 to have been + V3 Present Am Is + V3 Are The letter is written. Am Is + being + V3 Are The letter is being written. Have + been + V3 Has The letter has been written. Past Was + V3 Were The letter was written. Was + being + V3 Were The letter was being written. Had + been + V3 The letter had been written. Future Will be + V3 The letter will be written. Will+have+been+V3 The letter will have been written.

Страдательный залог показывает, что действие направлено на предмет или лицо, выраженное подлежащим.

Если действие выполнялось кем-то, то употребляется предлог by:

By me (мной) / you (тобой, вами) / him (им) / her (ею)/ us (нами) / them (ими).

Если действие выполнялось чем-то (предмет, орудие, инструмент), то употребляется предлог with: with a knife (ножом), with a stick (палкой).

Task 1. Переведите на русский язык.

1. The window is broken. 2. The house is built. 3. The essays are written. 4. The photos are made. 5. The homework was done. 6. The food was bought. 7. The texts were translated. 8. We were invited to the party. 9. The film will be shown. 10. The letter will be sent.

Task 2. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple Passive.

1. His books (to publish) every month. 2. Hockey (to play) usually in winter. 3. Meetings (to hold) every week. 4. Houses (to build) every year. 5. This holiday (to celebrate) usually in summer. 6. Comedies (to show) very often on TV. 7. This place (to visit) by tourists very often. 8. Newspapers (to read) every day. 9. Food (to buy) every day. 10. Documents (to type) very often.

Task 3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple Passive.

1. The exercises (to do) yesterday. 2. The article (to translate) last week. 3. The dinner (to cook) an hour ago. 4. The university (to found) in 1961. 5. The students (to invite) to the concert last Saturday. 6. The car (to buy) two months ago. 7. The conference (to hold) yesterday. 8. These topics (to discuss) last lesson. 9. This question (to ask) yesterday. 10. This house (to build) in 2006.

Task 4. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Simple Passive.

1. The film (to show) on TV soon. 2. Nick (to send) to Moscow next week. 3. The work (to do) tomorrow. 4. The translation (to finish) in two days. 5. The question (to discuss) next lesson. 6. This rule (to explain) next time. 7. The bill (to pay) tomorrow. 8. The answer (to receive) tomorrow. 9. The cake (to cook) in an hour. 10. The wall (to paint) next weekend.

Task 5. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present, Past, Future Simple Passive.

1. His car (to steal) last night. 2. Cheese (to make) from milk. 3. The dog (to give) some food in ten minutes. 4. The telegrams (to send) yesterday. 5. These cars (to produce) in Japan. 6. The exam (to pass) soon. 7. Jack (to arrest) two days ago. 8. Flowers (to sell) every day. 9. He (to take) to the café next weekend. 10. She (to invite) to the cinema yesterday.

Task 6. Измените предложения по образцу: He wrote a letter. – The letter was written.

1. They built many hotels last year. 2. You typed the document. 3. We eat bread every day. 4. We gather mushrooms in Autumn. 5. She will buy this bag tomorrow. 6. He will meet them at the airport. 7. We read newspapers every morning. 8. She brought the dictionary an hour ago. 9. They will finish the work soon. 10. I spent the money yesterday.

Task 7. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present, Past, Future Simple Passive.

1. Мне рассказывают – мне рассказали – мне расскажут (to tell)

2. Мне показывают – мне показали – мне покажут (to show)

3. Мне помогают – мне помогли – мне помогут (to help)

4. Нас спрашивают – нас спросили – нас спросят (to ask)

5. Нам отвечают – нам ответили – нам ответят (to answer)

6. Им дают – им дали – им дадут (to give)

7. Его забывают – его забыли – его забудут (to forget)

8. Ее приглашают – ее пригласили – ее пригласят (to invite)

9. Вас отправляют – вас отправили – вас отправят (to send)

10. Вас берут – вас взяли – вас возьмут (to take)

Тема 21. Причастие

Причастие – это неличная форма глагола, обладающая признаками как прилагательного (иногда наречия), так и глагола.

Формы причастия

Active Passive I Indefinite Participle * V + ing testing being + V3 being tested Perfect Participle * having + V3 having tested having been + V3 having been tested II Past Participle _______________ * V3 tested

*The man testing the device is a scientist.

Человек, тестирующий прибор, - ученый.

While (when) testing the device the scientist put down the results.

Тестируяприбор, ученый записывал результаты.

*Having tested the device he left the laboratory.

Протестировав прибор, он покинул лабораторию.

*The tested device was multifunctional.

Протестированный прибор был многофункциональным.

The device tested by the scientist was put into mass production.

Прибор, протестированный ученым, был внедрен в массовое производство.

Being tested the device was broken.

При тестировании (будучи тестируемым) прибор был сломан.

Having been tested properly the device was turned off.

После тщательного тестирования (будучи тщательно протестированным) прибор был выключен.